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Blood pressure is different in different vessels. Blood (arterial pressure) higher than venous (venous pressure). Blood pressure measuring unit is millimeter of mercury.
Blood pressure depends on the type (size or caliber) of the vessel: the larger the vessel, the higher the pressure. It is generally considered normal pressure in the brachial artery, it is in it it is measured with a tonometer. Many educated patients are able to measure blood pressure and watch it change, but not everyone knows what should be normal pressure in children. Let's talk about it in this article, as well as tell you about what are the causes and symptoms increase or decrease in blood pressure in children.
Blood pressure depends on age: the younger the child, the lower the pressure. This is due to the fact that the little children and the vessel walls more elastic, and the lumen of blood vessels wider, and the capillary network is more developed. Increases with age and systolic and diastolic pressure.
Up to about 5 years, the pressure does not differ in children of different sex and age of 5 - girls somewhat lower (about 9 s). With age, the pressure reaches 110/60 - 120/70, and then kept these rates for a long time.
Normal blood pressure at different ages of the child can be calculated by special formulas. So, are the formula 76 + 2m Baby calculation SD (m - the child's age in months). After a year of normal CD equals 90 + 2n (n - number of years of the child). The upper limit of the SD standards is 105 + 2n, and the lower limit of normal CD - 75 + 2n.
Normally DD in children first year of life is from 2/3 to 1/2 systolic pressure, and after the year is calculated as 60 + n (n - number of years the child). The upper limit of normal is 75 DD + l, and the bottom - 45+ liters.
Children quite often noted as increased blood pressure (hypertension) and low blood pressure (hypotension). This is especially characteristic of adolescence (puberty).
Causes of Hypertension in children
Increased blood pressure occurs in 5-10% of children, most in their teens. There are primary and secondary (associated with any disease) hypertension.
An example is the detection of high blood pressure in adolescents with no other disease, a symptom which could be hypertension. Such fluctuations in blood pressure have been reported in girls 12-13 years old, boys 14-15. In this case, increase in blood pressure due to the hormonal changes in the body during puberty, mostly with higher levels of aldosterone and epinephrine.
Vascular system from exposure to hormones narrowed, which leads to an increase in pressure. Most often, the pressure in adolescence increases sporadically, but it can occur and every day. At school age, high blood pressure is detected more often by accident.
The reason for increasing the pressure may be a violation of the regime of the day, lack of sleep duration, increased physical (eg, sports) load, excessively long pastime at the computer, psycho-emotional trauma and stressful situations. If you organize intellectual and physical activity and child rest, the pressure can be normalized.
If the maximum values exceed 135 mmHg, it is necessary a detailed examination of the child to determine the cause of hypertension, as it can be a symptom of an illness, other manifestations of which are not yet identified. Such a cause may be a disease of the endocrine system, kidneys and heart.